Santalum album  L.

Santalum album  L. (SANTALACEAE)
Common names
Kannada: Srigandha.
Malayalam: Chandanam.
Sanskrit: Chandana, Taliaparnam.
Tamil: Sandanam.
Telugu:  Chandanamu.
English: Sandalwood tree.

Description:  Small evergreen trees, up to 10 m tall with slender drooping branches; bark grey; facultative root parasites when young. Leaves opposite or whorled, ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, 4-8 x 1.5-4 cm, cuneate at base, acute at  apex, glabrous, thin, glaucous beneath; petioles 1-1.5 cm long. Flowers in 4-6 cm long terminal and axillary paniculate cymes, brownish-purple. Perianth campanulate, lobes 4 (rarely 5), purplish-brown within. Disc cupular, 4-5 lobed. Stamens 4, exserted; filaments short. Ovary unilocular; style short; stigma 2-3 lobed. Fruit a drupe, subglobose or globose, 1-1.5 cm across, purple-black when ripe. Seed solitary, subglobose.

Flowering & Fruiting: March – August.

Distribution: India: W. Peninsula.

Uses: Wood hard and close-grained, heartwood yellowish brown, strongly scented and is of great commercial value for carving, incense making, distillation of oil, as an unguent and in religious ceremonies. A valuable essential oil is obtained by distillation from the aromatic heartwood and the roots. Stem-bark used in malaria; wood febrifuge, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, used in headache; wood oil stimulant, antigonorrhoeic, expectorant, used as urinary antiseptic in dysuria, used in bronchitis, gleet, tuberculosis of gall bladder; paste of wood, oil from seed and stem-bark used in skin diseases, worm infestation, fever, polyuria, poisoning, debility, dysuria and emaciation.