Mammea suriga (Buch.- Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm.

Mammea suriga (Buch.- Ham. ex Roxb.) Kosterm. (GUTTIFERAE)
Common names
Kannada: Suragi.
Konkani: Rani-undi.
Malayalam: Suran punna.
Sanksrit: Naga-Kesaram-pushpam.
Tamil: Naga-pu, Nagashop-pu.
Telugu: Surapanna.

Description: Evergreen trees, up to 18 m tall, glabrous, monoecious; bark rough, exfoliating in irregular pieces; sap milky; branchlets obscurely 4-angled. Leaves opposite or ternately verticillate at apieces of branchlets, oblong, up to 22 x 7 cm, obtuse at base, obtuse, retuse or acuminate at apex, dark green, shiny, glabrous; petioles 5-10 mm long, channeled above.  Flowers in dense fascicles on nodes of old wood or in axils of fallen leaves, unisexual, often bisexual in cultivation, sweet-scented; bracteoles ca 8.  Calyx opening into 2 values, lobes concave, reflexed during anthesis, reddish.  Petals 4, oblong-obovate, acute, white, streaked with red, deciduous. Stamens numerous (60-100), yellow. Fruit a berry, obliquely ovoid, 2.5-3x1-1.5 cm.  Seeds 1-4, ca 2x1 cm.

Flowering & Fruiting: March – July.
Distribution: India: In evergreen and deciduous forests up to 600 m.  Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Cultivated in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Bangladesh.

Uses: Fruits are delicious and eaten. Wood sometimes used for building purposes, planking and for mats of boats. Seeds yield a viscid gum. Flowers (buds) used for dyeing silk. Cultivated for its handsome foliage and sweet-scented flowers; planted as an avenue tree and in household gardens. Flowers used in Hindu worship and for decorating hair. Flower buds mild stimulant, carminative, astringent and used in dyspepsia.