Holigarna ferruginea Marchand

Holigarna ferruginea Marchand (ANACARDIACEAE)
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Common names
Kannada:
 Chere.
Tulu: Chere.
Tamil: Chaeri.
 Malayalam: Haisikutti Cherai.

Description: Large trees, 30-33 m tall;  branches glabrous.  Leaves alternate, clustured at the ends of branchlets, obovate or oblaceolate, up to 22x 9 cm, cuneate at base,  obtuse or acute at apex, glabrous, glaucous beneath; nerves 12-16 pairs; petiole up to 1.5 cm long with a pair of caducous spurs. Flowers in up to 18 cm long, dark brown pubescent panicles, polygamous. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5.  Male flowers 4 mm across.  Stamens 5, filaments filiform. Disc 5-lobed, copular. Bisexual flowers 6 mm in diam., white.  Ovary inferior, 1-loculed; styles 3. Fruit a drupe, ellipsoid, up to 3.5 cm long, completely enclosed in hypocarp, rusty tomentose, black when ripe, resinous.  Seed solitary.
Flowering: February - April.
Fruiting: June - July
Distrobution: India: In semi-evergreen forests of Western Ghats. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Endemic to South W.India.

Uses: Tender leaves are used in making chutney. Timber useful for construction and agricultural implements. The acrid juice from the stem and fruit-rind is used as a black varnish by the painters.