Ficus nervosa  Heyne ex Roth

Ficus nervosa  Heyne ex Roth  (MORACEAE)
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Common names
Malayalam: Echamaram.
Tamil: Nir-al.

Description: Trees, 20-25 m tall without aerial roots; milky juice pearly-white; trunk cylindric; bark smooth, dark coloured; young parts minutely pubescent. Leaves elliptic, oblong-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 8-20 x 3-7.5 cm, narrowed or rounded at base, abruptly acuminate at apex, the acumen 1.5 – 2.5 cm long, entire, shining on both surfaces, the lower minutely tuberculate; basal nerves 3-5; lateral nerves 7-10 pairs, prominent beneath; petioles 1.5 – 2.3 cm long; stipules lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, membranous, ca 1.5 cm long. Receptacles pedunculate in pairs, axillary slightly verrucose when young, puberulous; branch at the base of receptacle 0, base of peduncle 3. Perianth lobes 3 each in fertile and gall flowers, 2 in male. Male flowers: few only near the mouth of receptacle. Stamen 1; anther single. Gall flowers: sessile or pedicullate. Ovary ovoid, smooth; style short. Fertile flowers: usually sessile. Ovary 1-locular; style long; stigma clavate. Fig subglobose, ca 1.3 cm across, red when ripe; peduncle ca 1.5 cm long. Seeds numerous, minute.

Flowering & Fruiting: November - March.

Distribution: India: In the hills of most districts except the driest, up to 1500 m. Sikkim, Himalaya, Assam, Rampa Hills, Vizagapatnam. Occasional in deciduous to semi-evergreen forests of Western Ghats. Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Malaya peninsula andArchipelago, China.